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Kuschelhormon: Oxytocin beeinflusst Sozialverhalten von Affen Trend Enzyklopädie - Futureclick

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Kuschelhormon: Oxytocin beeinflusst Sozialverhalten von Affen

Je enger der Kontakt, desto intensiver die Fellpflege: Nicht nur menschliches Handeln wird durch Oxytocin beeinflusst. Eine Studie zeigt nun, dass das Hormon auch bei Menschenaffen eine Schlüsselrolle spielt. Es dient dazu, langfristig soziale Bindungen aufrecht zu erhalten.


Komm kuscheln: Bonobos im Kongo bei der Fellpflege

Seinen Ruf als Kuschelhormon verdankt Oxytocin zahlreichen Studien, die ihm eine vertrauensstiftende Wirkung zuschreiben konnten. Es wird etwa während der Geburt ausgeschüttet und beim Stillen, sodass die Mutter-Kind-Bindung gestärkt wird. Wie Forscher um Catherine Crockford und Roman Wittig vom Max-Planck-Institut für evolutionäre Anthropologie in Leipzig herausgefunden haben, spielt Oxytocin auch für das Sozialverhalten von Schimpansen eine wichtige Rolle.

Bei den Menschenaffen scheine Oxytocin eine Schlüsselrolle bei der Aufrechterhaltung langfristiger sozialer Bindungen zu spielen – unabhängig von genetischer Verwandtschaft oder sexuellen Interessen, schreiben die Wissenschaftler im Journal „Proceedings of the Royal Society B“ .
Die Forscher untersuchten 148 Urinproben von 33 Schimpansen aus dem Budongo-Wald in Uganda. Sie fingen den Urin nach verschiedenen Situationen auf: Zum einen 15 bis 60 Minuten nachdem sich die Affen der Fellpflege („Lausen“) gewidmet hatten. Zum anderen prüften sie auch Urin von Tieren, die sich nicht gelaust hatten. „Dies ist die erste Studie, in der der Oxytocin-Spiegel wildlebender Tiere gemessen wird, ohne dass man ihnen Blut abnehmen musste“, erläuterte Wittig.

Im Ergebnis zeigte sich, dass der Oxytocin-Spiegel nach der Fellpflege bei jenen Affen besonders hoch war, die intensive soziale Kontakte miteinander pflegen. Ob sie verwandt waren oder nicht, machte dabei keinen Unterschied, schreiben die Forscher. „Es liegt die Vermutung nahe, dass es nicht die soziale Fellpflege ist, die für erhöhte Oxytocin-Werte sorgt, sondern die Beziehung der Tiere“, sagte Wittig.

Auf der anderen Seite waren die Oxytocin-Werte niedriger bei Affen, die eine Fellpflege vornahmen mit Artgenossen, die ihnen nicht weiter nahe standen – oder bei solchen, die sich gar nicht gelaust hatten.

via: http://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/

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